Concentrates on what is uniquely human, viewing people as basically rational, oriented toward a social world, and motivated to seek self-actualization Rogers, Focus on the relationship of the individual to society, considering the ways in which people view themselves in relation to others and see their place in the world. Views people as having an awareness of life and of themselves that leads them to search for meaning and self-worth.
He wrote 16 books and many more journal articles describing it. Prochaska and Norcross states Rogers "consistently stood for an empirical evaluation of psychotherapy.
He and his followers have demonstrated a humanistic approach to conducting therapy and a scientific approach to evaluating therapy need not be incompatible. The organism reacts to the field as it is experienced and perceived.
This perceptual field is "reality" for the individual. The organism reacts as an organized whole to this phenomenal field. A portion of the total perceptual field gradually becomes differentiated as the self.
As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly as a result of evaluational interaction with others, the structure of the self is formed—an organized, fluid but consistent conceptual pattern of perceptions of characteristics and relationships of the "I" or the "me", together with values attached to these concepts.
The organism has one basic tendency and striving—to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism. The best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual. Behavior is basically the goal-directed attempt of the organism to satisfy its needs as experienced, in the field as perceived.
Emotion accompanies, and in general facilitates, such goal directed behavior, the kind of emotion being related to the perceived significance of the behavior for the maintenance and enhancement of the organism.
The values attached to experiences, and the values that are a part of the self-structure, in some instances, are values experienced directly by the organism, and in some instances are values introjected or taken over from others, but perceived in distorted fashion, as if they had been experienced directly.
As experiences occur in the life of the individual, they are either, a symbolized, perceived and organized into some relation to the self, b ignored because there is no perceived relationship to the self structure, c denied symbolization or given distorted symbolization because the experience is inconsistent with the structure of the self.
Most of the ways of behaving that are adopted by the organism are those that are consistent with the concept of self. In some instances, behavior may be brought about by organic experiences and needs which have not been symbolized.
Such behavior may be inconsistent with the structure of the self but in such instances the behavior is not "owned" by the individual.
Psychological adjustment exists when the concept of the self is such that all the sensory and visceral experiences of the organism are, or may be, assimilated on a symbolic level into a consistent relationship with the concept of self.
Psychological maladjustment exists when the organism denies awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences, which consequently are not symbolized and organized into the gestalt of the self structure. When this situation exists, there is a basic or potential psychological tension.
Any experience which is inconsistent with the organization of the structure of the self may be perceived as a threat, and the more of these perceptions there are, the more rigidly the self structure is organized to maintain itself. Under certain conditions, involving primarily complete absence of threat to the self structure, experiences which are inconsistent with it may be perceived and examined, and the structure of self revised to assimilate and include such experiences.
When the individual perceives and accepts into one consistent and integrated system all her sensory and visceral experiences, then she is necessarily more understanding of others and is more accepting of others as separate individuals. As the individual perceives and accepts into his self structure more of his organic experiences, he finds that he is replacing his present value system—based extensively on introjections which have been distortedly symbolized—with a continuing organismic valuing process.
In relation to No. The main issue is the development of a self-concept and the progress from an undifferentiated self to being fully differentiated. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness.
It is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity. Rogers,  In the development of the self-concept, he saw conditional and unconditional positive regard as key.
Those raised in an environment of unconditional positive regard have the opportunity to fully actualize themselves. Those raised in an environment of conditional positive regard feel worthy only if they match conditions what Rogers describes as conditions of worth that have been laid down for them by others.
Fully functioning person[ edit ] Optimal development, as referred to in proposition 14, results in a certain process rather than static state.
He describes this as the good life, where the organism continually aims to fulfill its full potential. He listed the characteristics of a fully functioning person Rogers An increasingly existential lifestyle — living each moment fully — not distorting the moment to fit personality or self-concept but allowing personality and self-concept to emanate from the experience.
This results in excitement, daring, adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity, and a lack of rigidity and suggests a foundation of trust.
They do not rely on existing codes and social norms but trust that as they are open to experiences they will be able to trust their own sense of right and wrong. Freedom of choice — not being shackled by the restrictions that influence an incongruent individual, they are able to make a wider range of choices more fluently.
They believe that they play a role in determining their own behavior and so feel responsible for their own behavior. Creativity — it follows that they will feel more free to be creative. They will also be more creative in the way they adapt to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform.
Reliability and constructiveness — they can be trusted to act constructively.
An individual who is open to all their needs will be able to maintain a balance between them. Even aggressive needs will be matched and balanced by intrinsic goodness in congruent individuals.Humanistic Theory of Personality.
The concept of the “self” is central to the personality theory of Carl Rogers and other humanists. Our self-concept is our subjective perception of who we are and what we are like A major tenet of humanistic psychology is that humans possess an inner drive to grow, improve, and use their .
Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, – February 4, ) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award .
Carl Rogers: Carl Rogers was a prominent humanistic psychologist who is known for his theory of personality that emphasizes change, growth, and the potential for human good.
Carl Rogers was a prominent psychologist and one of the founding members of the humanist movement. A person enters person centered therapy in a state of incongruence. It is the role of the therapists to reverse this situation.
Rogers () called his therapeutic approach client-centered or person-centered therapy because of the focus on the person’s subjective view of the ph-vs.com: Saul Mcleod. Major Philosophical Implications of Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Daniel Artley Artley, Daniel, "Major Philosophical Implications of Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality" ().Master's ph-vs.com Dr.
Carl R. Rogers is . Humanistic Theory of Personality Advertisements Grew out of the work of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Humanistic perspective emphasizes the responsibility people have for their own behavior, even when their behavior is seen as abnormal.