Niah Cave entrance at sunset Anatomically modern human hunter-gatherer migration into Southeast Asia before 50, years ago has been confirmed by the combined fossil record of the region. Modern human presence in the Niah cave on East Malaysia dates back to 40, years BP, although archaeological documentation of the early settlement period suggests only brief occupation phases. Items there found such as burial jars, earthenware, jade ornaments and other jewellery, stone tools, animal bones, and human fossils date back to 47, years BP. Unearthed human remains are approximately 24, years old.
Anthropology is invested in studying this phenomenon primarily but not exclusively in its cultural and social dimensions.
Studies on migration in anthropology can be roughly divided into two categories. First, there are studies that emphasize the aspect of immigration.
These studies focus on the way immigrants are perceived by the societies into which they enter as well as how they respond to these perceptions. Second, there is a sustained interest by anthropologists in the process of migration itself. Anthropologists interested in these latter issues have frequently taken recourse to scholarship in postcolonial and cultural studies, fields that have developed a rich conceptual apparatus to characterize movements and flows.
Anthropology contributes to the study of contemporary migratory flows through its holistic approach, which is able to tie together many different aspects of complex migration processes. The majority of anthropological work on migration benefits greatly from intensive collaboration with neighboring fields such as cultural studies, postcolonial studies, economics, history, political science, legal studies, sociology, and geography.
Anthropological research on migration is nearly always interdisciplinary. Historically, the study of human migrations was not a focus in anthropology until well into the s.
Before this time, anthropology as well as continental European ethnology focused largely on the study of small-scale localities. Important theories in the social sciences such as world-systems theory were used to map out large-scale processes that induced migratory patterns and to study how economic and political undercurrents affected individual people or small groups as they were swept up in the migratory steams of the midth century.
In the s, the cultural and social dimension of migration increasingly took precedence over the earlier, economic one. This change was induced by two larger undercurrents of research in the social sciences and humanities as a whole. First, the cultural dimension of late modern, industrialized societies came into much larger focus in the social sciences.
Second, the rise of postcolonialism contributed to a more complex understanding of migration processes and their effect on people beyond the economic dimension. A young generation of anthropologists and cultural critics began to investigate cultures as embedded in global flows and detached from the forces of markets and economics.
This diversification inspired a variety of interests in studying the relationship between culture and human migrations. Bibliographies and Overviews There are no general anthropological bibliographies on the topic of migration. There are, however, anthropologically inspired bibliographical works on specific migration cases, such as White on the migration of Turks to Germany.
There are two overviews that link anthropological work with migration. Both of these works are of an interdisciplinary character, combining several relevant fields for migration research.
Castles and Miller discusses a wide range of works, organized by specific topics and with extensive commentary; this work is widely used by students of migration and is now available in its fourth edition.
Brettell and Hollifield focuses more specifically on the role of culture in a discussion of available works in migration research; yet, the volume is likewise geared toward embedding anthropological accounts within a wider field of the social sciences.
A slightly more dated resource, Kearney is useful to understand the development in anthropological studies on migration up to the mids, while Reed-Danahay and Brettell offers a variety of ethnographic studies on migration in Western Europe and North America.
Fonera quantitative-cum-qualitative study, shows, from a perspective of immigration, the historical dimension of people coming to New York City. In the context of this work, Foner also provides a very extensive overview and discussion of the literature on immigration from the perspective of many different immigrant groups as they arrived in this location.
Foner more generally introduces readers to the anthropological studies of immigration, both contemporary and historical. Rosenblum and Tichenor is a more general view of international migration, including but not limited to anthropological perspectives.
A useful online resource is the Migration Information Sourcewhich provides several subcategories that offer initial information on a variety of themes and regions.Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , C. Brettell and others published Anthropology and migration: Essays on transnationalism, ethnicity, and identity.
Anthropology and migration: essays on transnationalism, ethnicity, and identity. Responsibility Caroline Brettell. Anthropology, Migration, and the Portuguese Diaspora-- Part I.
Situating the Anthropological Perspective: Macro, Meso, and Micro Approaches to the Study of Migration-- 1. Brettell's book provides new insight into the. Anthropology and Migration: Essays on Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and Identity - Kindle edition by Caroline B. Brettell. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Anthropology and Migration: Essays on Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and 5/5(1). The two-page identity entry covers the development and ambiguities of the term, cites several key anthropologists writing on the subject, and cross-references a number of related concepts, including ethnicity, gender, and sex.
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