Properties[ edit ] The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent —to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. Apart from this it is said that stem cell function is regulated in a feed back mechanism. Self-renewal[ edit ] Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:
Download a PDF copy of this content What has cloning got to do with stem cell research? Everyone has probably heard about Dolly the sheep and how she was made using cloning techniques.
But what has cloning got to do with stem cell research? Scientists are interested in making pluripotent stem cells directly from a patient using the same technique that was used to make Dolly.
By using this approach, scientists hope to be able to study the development or progression of the disease or illness that the patient is suffering from. This type of cloning is called therapeutic cloning.
The egg will then divide in the laboratory and after days, embryonic stem cells can be isolated from the SCNT embryo. These embryonic stem cells are genetically identical to the cell from which the nucleus was originally removed.
While scientists have been able to make embryonic stem cells using this approach in monkeys and mice, to date they have not been able to this in man. It has been legal for Australian researchers to attempt to make stem cells using therapeutic cloning since but only if they comply with very strict regulations and obtain a licence for their specific project.
Reproductive cloning is where the embryo created using SCNT is transferred into a surrogate mother to achieve a pregnancy. In Australia, and many other countries around the world, it is specifically prohibited to attempt to create a new person through reproductive cloning. To learn more about the Australian laws that ban reproductive cloning but allow therapeutic cloning please watch The Stem Cell Debate in our video library.Embryonic stem cell research is a hot topic that seems to pit anti-abortion conservatives against pro-abortion liberals.
The conservatives claim that there are better alternatives to embryonic stem cells, while the liberals claim that conservatives are blocking research that will provide cures to . Embryonic stem cell research has the greatest promise. Up to now, no human being has ever been cured of a disease using embryonic stem cells.
Adult stem cells, on the other hand, have already cured thousands. Human embryonic development depends on stem cells.
During the course of development, cells divide, migrate, and specialize. Early in development, a group of cells called the inner cell mass (ICM) forms. Four panels addressed the specific scientific, religious, ethical, and legal implications of human reproductive cloning and stem cell research.
This document gives a brief summary of the issues as they were raised by the four panels. Science and Biotechnology Perspectives.
Genetic Science Learning Center. (, August 7) ph-vs.comcs. Retrieved November 14, , from ph-vs.com Therapeutic cloning involves the replication of human embryos to harvest stem cells for medical uses.
Most clones are created through a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer." Essentially, a scientist uses a tiny needle to pull DNA material from the nucleus of a donor cell and transfer it into a hollow egg.
The egg has had its own nucleus and genetic material removed.