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Newsroom of The New York TimesThe newspaper industry has always been cyclical, and the industry has weathered previous troughs. Television 's arrival in the s began the decline of newspapers as most people's source of daily news. But the explosion of the Internet in the s increased the range of media choices available to the average reader while further cutting into newspapers' dominance as the source of news. Television and the Internet both bring news to the consumer faster and in a more visual style than newspapers, which are constrained by their physical format and their physical manufacturing and distribution.

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While not qualifying as the birthplace of the printed newspaper in Europe, several towns in the Netherlands became important international newspaper centers in the early s and retained this role for more than a century.

A number of French language newspapers, which became known collectively as La Gazette de Hollandewere published in Leyden, The Hague, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Utrecht, in a free-press environment.

French was the most widespread language of politics in the seventeenth century, and Dutch publishers supplied this international market with newspapers that many of their reading public believed to originate in France Hatin 6.

The earliest of these international gazettes were the Tydinghen uyt Verscheyde Quartieren and the Courante uyt Italien ende Duytschlandboth published in Amsterdam and reporting tydinghen tidings from abroad.

The Dutch word for newspaper, krantis derived from the French courant current and the Spanish corantosboth of which mean "current" as in current tidings. Numerous additional gazettes were founded in Dutch cities in the following decades.

The Nouvelles extraordinaires de divers endroitan international gazette better known as La Gazette de Leydewas published in Leiden sinceand La Gazette d'Amsterdam also published under other titles such as Nouvelles d'Amsterdam entered the scene inthe Gazette de Rotterdam was founded inand La Gazette de La Haye appeared for nearly a half century Beginning in the mid-seventeenth century, several Dutch-language gazettes were also published throughout the northern part of the Low Countries, with titles including the Amsterdamsche Courant circathe Oprechte Haerlemse Courant published in Haarlem, beginning inand the Ordinaire Leydsche Courant Although licensing requirements for newspaper publishers were installed as a vehicle for placing them under the control of local city governments from the beginning of the eighteenth century, competition between the cities and the influence of the liberal merchant class ensured a de facto free press.

Local Dutch authorities were not concerned about the many journals that were published in the relatively tolerant environment of their cities by refugees from religious intolerance elsewhere in Europe.

An independent Dutch newspaper press continued to develop in the eighteenth century, and many additional daily newspapers flourished, including the Gravenhaegsche Cou-rant in The Hague, the Rotterdamsche Courantthe Utrechtsche Courantthe Leeuwarder Courantand the Oprechte Groninger Courant.

The constitution enacted in by the repressive political regime following the French Revolution, which remained in force for 50 years, severely curtailed freedom of the press, since it literally stated that criticism of the government was equivalent to "an offense against freedom of the press.

After enactment of a new and liberal constitution inwhich prohibited all forms of censorship, publication of daily newspapers and other periodicals rose rapidly to more than different publications.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, further technological progress in mechanical writing and newspaper production increasingly facilitated production of inexpensive editions of daily papers, exemplified by Het Nieuws van den Dag The Daily Newsfounded in Further, journalism and newspaper production in the Netherlands, as in other countries, was given a major boost by the introduction of the typewriter and its successors.

The large numbers of newspapers were published under editorial policies that have become known under the term "pillarization" Verzuiling.

Newspapers reflected the combined religious and political views of their editorship, and this remained characteristic for Dutch newspapers until World War II. The main religious tendencies of Roman Catholic and Calvinist-Protestant were combined with a particular political conviction.

The Dutch press in the East Indies also played a role in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Contrary to the Gazettes de Hollandewhich had been a vehicle to promote nationalist views of outside groups in the previous century, it did not foster nationalist sentiment.

The editors of the various newspapers, even those published in the Malay and Javanese languages, steered clear of violations of Dutch press laws, which had been amended in to ensure the public order but were used to suppress criticism of the government Hagen.

A few papers stopped publication altogether, while others collaborated with the Nazi regime—under effective takeovers by Nazi-appointed editorial trustees.

Background & General Characteristics

Ever since the Gutenberg revolution, the printed press has served as a vehicle for government propaganda as well as a vehicle for the expression of individual opinions. The Nazi occupation of west European countries provides a set of interesting case studies of officially sanctioned newspapers that published censored material and the simultaneous emergence of an underground press that served the resistance.

Establishment of an underground press that stressed the need for individuals and groups to sabotage activities of the occupying forces was accomplished at great risk to both the publishers and distributors.

Nevertheless, the underground press achieved very high levels of circulation as the war drew its course. Several of the underground newspapers continued publication after the end of the war, notably the Protestant daily Trouw and the Socialist daily Het Parool.

In the s, however, they no longer rank among the top 10 daily newspapers. Almost 5 million newspapers were sold daily to a nation of While not the largest among the west European countries, this ratio ranks among the highest.

There are no Sunday newspapers in the Netherlands a recent attempt to establish one failedbut there is a very high number of non-dailies, most of them regional in scope. The total number of daily newspapers has remained above 80 in the last two decades, and circulation has expanded in tandem with population growth; as population crept up from 14 million to 16 million inaggregate circulation rose from 4.

Inaccording to Translatin, the four leading daily newspapers were De Telegraafwith a circulation of , owned by Telegraaf-Holding; Algemeen Dagbladwith a circulation of , owned by Dagbladunie Reed-Elsevier ; De Volkskrantwith a circulation of , owned by Perscombinatie co-operative; and NRC Handelsbladwith a circulation of , owned by Dagbladunie Reed-Elsevier.

When considering the top 10 newspapers in the most recent decades, the list consistently contains De TelegraafAlgemeen Dag bladand De Volkskrant. Founded inDe Telegraaf is the leading Dutch, nationally distributed, daily newspaper.

Its content is aimed at middle-class readership in the Netherlands, as well as abroad. While the editorial political orientation is generally neutral, articles often have flashy headlines, and there is a heavy focus on show business news.A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events..

Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business, sports and art, and often include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries, birth notices, crosswords, editorial cartoons, comic strips, and advice columns.

Newspaper advertising is one of the oldest forms of print promotion and an affordable and flexible option for businesses that want to reach potential customers on a local, regional, or national scale.

The press and media are fairly free in this island nation despite a deadly war between the Sinhalese-dominated government and the separatist Tamils fighting under the aegis of the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).

Editors : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

History Traditions The beginnings of the press in Sri Lanka were marked by the publication of the Government Gazette in , within months of Britain's formal acquisition of the island at the Peace of Amiens.

The gazette could not be considered a genuine newspaper as such, since it was the government's tool to announce official . Not sure what newspaper advertising costs?

Are newspaper ads right for your business? Here's everything you need to know. History of Newspapers. By Mitchell Stephens.

Competition circulation and advertising newspaper research journal

For Collier's Encyclopedia (article on History of Television from Grolier Encyclopedia) NEWSPAPER, a publication that appears regularly and frequently, and carries news about a wide variety of current ph-vs.comzations such as trade unions, religious groups, corporations or clubs may have their own newspapers, but the term is more commonly used.

History of Newspapers - Mitchell Stephens