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Outhouses in BrisbaneAustralia, around A significant development was the construction of a network of sewers to collect wastewater. Instead of flowing to a river or the sea, the pipes have been re-routed to modern sewer treatment facilities.
However, until the Enlightenment eralittle progress was made in water supply and sanitation and the engineering skills of the Romans were largely neglected throughout Europe. This began to change in the 17th and 18th centuries with a rapid expansion in waterworks and pumping systems.
The tremendous growth of cities during the Industrial Revolution quickly led to terribly overpolluted streets, which acted as a constant source for the outbreak of disease.
As cities grew in the 19th century, increasing concerns were raised about public health. During the half-century aroundthese public health interventions succeeded in drastically reducing the incidence of water-borne diseases among the urban population, and were an important cause in the increases of life expectancy experienced at the time.
During the s and s, this practice resulted in disastrous spread of waterborne diseases like cholera and typhoid. By the s the luxury of indoor plumbingwhich mixes human waste with water and flushes it away, eliminated the need for cesspools. The odor was considered the big problem in waste disposal and to address it, sewage could be drained to a lagoonor "settled" and the solids removed, to be disposed of separately.
This process is now called "primary treatment" and the settled solids are called "sludge. From as early as there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London. Beginning with an Act passed that year that was to prohibit the dumping of excrement into the river.
Proposals to modernize the sewerage system had been made during but were neglected due to lack of funds. However, after the Great Stink ofParliament realized the urgency of the problem and resolved to create a modern sewerage system.
He designed an extensive underground sewerage system that diverted waste to the Thames Estuarydownstream of the main center of population. Three of these sewers were north of the river, the southernmost, low-level one being incorporated in the Thames Embankment.
The Embankment also allowed new roads, new public gardens, and the Circle Line of the London Underground. Construction of the interceptor system required million bricks, 2. Sewers north of the Thames feed into the Northern Outfall Sewerwhich fed into a major treatment works at Beckton. South of the river, the Southern Outfall Sewer extended to a similar facility at Crossness.
The Paris cholera epidemic of sharpened the public awareness of the necessity for some sort of drainage system to deal with sewage and wastewater in a better and healthier way. Between and Eugene Belgrand lead the development of a large scale system for water supply and wastewater management.
Between these years approximately kilometers of aqueducts were built to bring in potable spring water, which freed the poor quality water to be used for flushing streets and sewers.
By laws were passed which made drainage mandatory. The treatment of Paris sewage, though, was left to natural devices as 5, hectares of land were used to spread the waste out to be naturally purified.
Further, the lack of sewage treatment left Parisian sewage pollution to become concentrated downstream in the town of Clichy, effectively forcing residents to pack up and move elsewhere. Hamburg and Frankfurt, Germany[ edit ] The first comprehensive sewer system in a German city was built in Hamburg, Germany in the midth century.
This was the beginning of the biological aerobic and anaerobic treatments which are fundamental to wastewater processes. As pollution of water bodies became a concern, cities attempted to treat the sewage before discharge. It needs to be connected to a sewer system though.
Where this is not feasible or desired, dry toilets are an alternative option. Water supply[ edit ] Chelsea Waterworks An ambitious engineering project to bring fresh water from Hertfordshire to London was undertaken by Hugh Myddleton who oversaw the construction of the New River between and The New River Company became one of the largest private water companies of the time, supplying the City of London and other central areas.
The Chelsea Waterworks Company was established in "for the better supplying the City and Liberties of Westminster and parts adjacent with water". The first screw-down water tap was patented in by Guest and Chrimes, a brass foundry in Rotherham.
Sir Francis Bacon attempted to desalinate sea water by passing the flow through a sand filter. The first documented use of sand filters to purify the water supply dates towhen the owner of a bleachery in Paisley, ScotlandJohn Gibb, installed an experimental filter, selling his unwanted surplus to the public.There is some good points, but this article is an incredibly generalization of the online advertising industry.
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