Edit Students who pursue the diploma take six subjects; one each from Groups 1 to 5 below with an additional subject from 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6.
Thompson, Carlyle Marsden, Gordon Ray Church, and all the other bright souls who did not survive Mormonism's homophobia. And to those of us who have survived, that we might bear witness In doing so, it became apparent to me that Mormon women found that the intensity of female homosociality  available in Mormon structures created a vital space in which they could explore passionate, romantic relationships with each other.
At the same time I have uncovered some of the problematics of male homosociality - its power to arbitrarily defend or exile men accused of entering into erotic relationships with other men.
During the early 's Mormon founder Joseph Smith deified heterosexuality when he introduced the doctrine of a Father and Mother in Heaven - a divine, actively heterosexual couple paradigmatic of earthly sexual relationships.
As Mormon bishop T. Eugene Shoemaker recently posited: Van Wagoner explains that Smith's "emphasis on procreation became the basis for the Mormon concept of humanity's progress to divinity.
Smith explained that God was an exalted [heterosexual] man and that mortal existence was a testing ground for men to begin to progress toward exalted godhood. Salvation became a family affair revolving around a husband whose plural wives and children were sealed to him for eternity under the 'new and everlasting covenant'.
This separatism, which the sexual deviance of polygamy created, was a highly effective means for the Mormons to gain social and political power amongst their own members. However, while practicing their own sexual perversion i. This continuum is "a range - through each woman's life and throughout history - of woman-identified experience, not simply the fact that a woman has had or consciously desired genital sexual experience with another woman".
For Rich, this Lesbianism easily encompasses many more forms of emotional "intensity between and among women, including the sharing of a rich inner life, the bonding against male tyranny, the giving and receiving of practical and political support.
While some critics see polygamy as a form of male tyranny over women, I find that many Mormon women subversively reconstructed polygamy as a means of escaping male domination on many other levels, in what I call heroic acts of Lesbian resistance. The potential for female homosocial relationships is found among the polygamous "sister- wives" of Milford Shipp.
This was possible only because her sister-wives cared for her three children in Utah while she was studying back east, pooling their resources to pay her tuition.
Her sister-wives also wrote her encouraging letters, while she described those of her husband as "harsh", "bitter and sharp".
Shipp returned to Salt Lake City, she set up a thriving medical practice and made enough money to send her other sister-wives through medical college or midwifery training. Indeed, her biographer claims that her sister-wives' "role in ensuring Ellis's professional advancement stands as a moving testimony to the close relationships possible among Mormon plural wives.
He gave them important marital status and fathered their children. Otherwise, "in polygamy the wives and children learned to fend for themselves". Shipp recorded in her private journal, "How beautiful to contemplate the picture of a family where each one works for the interest, advancement, and well-being of all.
Even more to the point is Ellis' statement, also from her journal, about "how pure and heavenly is the relationship of sisters in the holy order of polygamy.
Despite the fact that Joseph Smith deified, eternalized, and pluralized heterosexuality through polygamy and temple ritual, early Mormon women found that their bodies, sensuality, and desires were neither tamed nor contained by obedience to the institution of polygamy. I believe that many women found creative, unique, and intensely meaningful ways to confess and express their desire for other women.
Carol Lasser, has documented that Victorian women in America, in order to formalize "Romantic Friendships" with other women, sometimes married brothers, becoming sisters-in-law and sharing a surname.
She theorizes that marrying brothers "deepened their intimacy, extending it in new directions, further complicating the intricate balance of emotional and material ties, and perhaps offering a symbolic consummation of their passion" for each other.
The unique arrangements of Mormon polygamous households provided a potential medium for Lesbian expression among women who could easily albeit covertly eroticize each other's bodies through the gaze of their shared husband.
The "David and Jonathan" of the Primary: Felt and May Anderson Indeed at least one Mormon woman went so far as to request that her husband marry polygamously after she fell in love with another woman, so that the two women could openly live together. Sarah Louisa Bouton married Joseph Felt in as his first wife but according to a biography, aroundLouie the masculinized nickname she used met and "fell in love with" a young woman in her local LDS congregation named Alma Elizabeth Lizzie Mineer.
But Lizzie's new responsibilities of bearing and raising children evidently proved too great a strain for her and Louie's relationship.
Five years later Louie Felt fell in love with "another beautiful Latter-day Saint girl" named Lizzie Liddell, and again Joseph obligingly married her for Louie's sake. Thus Louie "opened her home and shared her love" with this second Lizzie.
This time, however, May did not marry Joseph Felt. In May moved in with Louie, and Joseph permanently moved out of the house Louie had built and bought on her own. These two women lived together for almost 40 years, and together presided over three of Mormonism's most significant institutions: According to their recent biographer, Felt and Anderson's relationship was a "symbiotic partnership with each compensating for the weaknesses and complementing the strengths of the other".
The Children's Friend biography more bluntly declared that "the friendship which had started when Sister Felt and [May Anderson] met Those who watched their devotion to each other declare that there never were more ardent lovers than these two".
The same biography also calls the beginning of their relationship a "time of love feasting", and makes it clear that the two women shared the same bed. For centuries, the biblical characters David and Jonathan have been classic signifiers of male-male desire and homoeroticism, because in the Hebrew scriptures, it was written in 2 Samuel 1:Reflective writing helps us to think more about ourselves, who we are, and how we have changed.
Read on in order to find out more about what a reflective essay is and how reflective essays are. a poison tree essay victrelis incivek comparison essay australian food culture essay the passive voice in essay writing is when we front cover for essay reactions.
The baccalauréat (French pronunciation:), often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students take after high ph-vs.comuced by Napoleon I in , it is the main diploma that is required to pursue university studies.. There is also the European Baccalaureate, which students take at the end of the European School education.
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