The first period was in the first century as a vassal kingdom of Armenia. Corduene was then incorporated in the Roman Republic and remained in Roman hands for more than four centuries.
Kurds The Kurds are a people of Indo-European origin. They speak an Iranian language known as Kurdishand comprise the majority of the population of the region — however, included therein are ArabArmenianAssyrian AzerbaijaniJewishOssetianPersianand Turkish communities.
Most inhabitants are Muslim, but adherents to other religions are present as well — including YarsanismYazidisAlevisChristians and in the past, Jews, most of whom immigrated to Israel.
The major cities in this region are Qamishli Kurdish: Turkish Kurdistan encompasses a large area of Eastern Anatolia Region and southeastern Anatolia of Turkey and it is home to an estimated 6 to 8 million Kurds. They are referred to as Upper Kurdistan and Lower Kurdistan respectively. Modern Curdistan is of much greater extent than the ancient Assyria, and is composed of two parts the Upper and Lower.
In the former is the province of Ardelan, the ancient Arropachatis, now nominally a part of Irak Ajami, and belonging to the north west division called Al Jobal.
It contains five others namely, Betlis, the ancient Carduchia, lying to the south and south west of the lake Van. East and south east of Betlis is the principality of Julamerick, south west of it is the principality of Amadia.
The pashalics of Kirkook and Solimania also comprise part of Upper Curdistan. Lower Curdistan comprises all the level tract to the east of the Tigris, and the minor ranges immediately bounding the plains and reaching thence to the foot of the great range, which may justly be denominated the Alps of western Asia.
The lowlands of southern Kurdistan are called lower Kurdistan. The main cities in this area are Kirkuk and Arbil. Climate Much of the region is typified by a continental climate — hot in the summer, cold in the winter.
Despite this, much of the region is fertile and has historically exported grain and livestock. The northern mountainous regions along the border with Iran and Turkey receive heavy snowfall and they are more of an extreme version of the continental climate. Flora and fauna Kurdistan is one of the most mountainous regions in the world with a cold climate receiving annual precipitation adequate to sustain temperate forests and shrubs.
The steppe and desert in the south, by contrast, have such species as palm trees and date palm. Animals found in the region include the Syrian brown bearwild boargray wolfthe golden jackalIndian crested porcupinethe red foxgoitered gazelleEurasian otterstriped hyenaPersian fallow deerlong-eared hedgehogonagermangar and the Euphrates softshell turtle.
Rivers The plateaus and mountains of Kurdistan, which are characterized by heavy rain and snow fall, act as a water reservoir for the Near and Middle East, forming the source of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, as well as other numerous smaller rivers, such as the Little KhaburKhaburTharthar, Ceyhan, AraxesKura, Sefidrud, Karkha, and Hezil.
These rivers, which flow from heights of three to four thousand meters above sea level, are significant both as water sources and for the production of energy. Iraq and Syria dammed many of these rivers and their tributaries, and Turkey has an extensive dam system under construction as part of the GAP Southeast Anatolia Project ; though incomplete, the GAP already supplies a significant proportion of Turkey's electrical energy needs.
Due to the extraordinary archaeological richness of the region, almost any dam impacts historic sites. The region includes Lake Van, the largest body of water in Turkey; the only lake in the Middle East with a larger surface is Lake Urmia — though not nearly as deep as Lake Van, which has a much larger volume.The Kurdistan Map is constantly evolving.
Visit the Kurdish Project's interactive map to explore the Kurdish regions in Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria. STATEBUILDING AND GENDER IN THE KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ 3 INTRODUCTION On 27 May , the LSE Middle East Centre and the American University in Dubai organised a one-day work -.
Is Kurdistan a state? Kurdistan is a defined geographical area, where the Kurds are in majority.
The area is located in Northern Iraq, south of . Without recognition or foreign backing, however, the state ended up being defeated by the Turkish government who resumed control over the region.
The Ararat movement was led by Xoybûn, a Kurdish political party which held its founding congress in August in Bihamdun, Lebanon. Kurdistan: Kurdistan, broadly defined geographic region traditionally inhabited mainly by Kurds. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Start Your Free Trial opportunity of autonomous development”—Kurdish nationalists looked to the eventual establishment of a Kurdistani state.
A group of demonstrators take a break from a march in front of a closed shop during a regional general strike to protest against the violence that marred Sunday’s referendum vote on Tuesday in.