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Four general American Indian culture areas developed in Texas: The American Indian cultures reflected their environments and resources and were as diverse as the Texas landscape itself.
Prior to that time, most American Indians used spears as hunting tools or weapons. The bow and arrow had several advantages. The bow was lighter and required fewer resources to make. The arrow was much more lethal than a spear because of its speed, silence, and accuracy.
InSpanish explorers described three "confederacies" of Caddo people: The agriculture-based Caddoes lived in thatched huts and were extremely skilled artisans particularly known for their ceramic pottery.
One of Texas's best examples of a Caddo mound—a tribal center of ritual and spiritual activity— is located in Cherokee County.
Image courtesy of Edward S. Two groups settled in Texas— the Lipan Apache and the Mescalero. The Lipan Apache lived and hunted together in bands. They were excellent horse riders and used their deadly bow and arrow skills on both buffaloes and enemies.
On October 12, he reached the K mart timeline. Six months later, he returned to Spain with gold, cotton, American Indian handicrafts, exotic parrots, and other strange beasts. His tales of the native peoples, land, and resources in North America ignited the era of Spanish colonization.
He set out with four ships and men to find a passage to the Pacific Ocean. There are few records detailing his exploration, although one Spanish document does indicate that he sailed around the coast of Florida, into the Gulf of Mexico, and up a river dotted with palm trees and the villages of native peoples.
Earlier interpretations of his voyage identified this river as the Rio Grande, but later data shows that it was probably the Soto la Marina, located in Mexico. His trip seemed doomed from the beginning. Many of his men died, deserted, or were killed by the American Indians whose people and villages the expedition attacked and pillaged.
He kept a detailed diary which has become an invaluable primary source describing the life and peoples of early Texas. This encounter, which Cabeza de Vaca wrote about in his diary, is the first recorded meeting of Europeans and Texas American Indians.
Louis near Matagorda Bay. The Karankawa were historically one of the most powerful American Indian peoples in early Texas, but by the s, their numbers had been so reduced that they were considered to be extinct.
Conscience-stricken by the abuse of American Indians at the hands of Spanish conquistadors, he crusaded on the native peoples' behalf for over five decades. Inde las Casas participated in a debate in Oaxaca, Mexico, where he argued for the American Indians' right to be treated as individuals with dignity and against the Spanish efforts to convert native peoples to both the Catholic faith and the Spanish culture.
His blistering work inA Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians, convinced King Charles V to outlaw the conversion practices, but riots among land holders in New Spain Mexico convinced authorities not to make any changes in their treatment of American Indians.
Various historical accounts describe the soldiers' astonishment at the Texas landscape, including Palo Duro Canyon, and the huge, hump-backed cows buffalo that roamed the grasslands. Coronado never found any gold in the Panhandle, and the expedition returned to Mexico in This expedition marked the first European crossing of the Mississippi River.
Opinions differ as to the exact route the Moscoso expedition took through Texas, but recent scholarship suggests that they traveled south from East Texas toward present-day Nacogdoches and then into the Hill Country before turning back toward the Mississippi River in Arkansas.
They used the oozings to treat rheumatism and skin diseases. Oil was also seen by the Spanish explorers as early as Julywhen members of the De Soto expedition saw oil floating in the water near Sabine Pass and used it to caulk their boats. Later, settlers used surface oil for axel grease and for lighting and fuel.
Image courtesy of U. The ships, including six armed vessels, carried cargo and were headed to various parts of the world including New Spain Mexico and the Indies.
On April 29,three ships were wrecked in a storm on Padre Island, near present-day Port Mansfield. In the s and s, excavation efforts retrieved thousands of artifacts such as cannons, silver coins, gold bullion, astrolabes, and tools from the wreckage of the San Esteban and the Espiritu Santo.
The third sunken ship, the Santa Maria de Yclar, was destroyed during ship channel construction in the s. Missionaries often accompanied conquistadors on their explorations in North America. The first missionaries passed through far west Texas in on their way to the pueblos of New Mexico.
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