Development of intelligence There have been a number of approaches to the study of the development of intelligence. Psychometric theorists, for instance, have sought to understand how intelligence develops in terms of changes in intelligence factors and in various abilities in childhood. For example, the concept of mental age was popular during the first half of the 20th century. Thus, an average year-old would have a mental age of 12, but an above-average year-old or a below-average year-old might also have a mental age of 12 years.
Some are more intelligent than others.
The differences are so much that some change the course of human civilization through their intellectual innovations, a few others even find it difficult to master a problem simple addition.
The individual differences that exist among all of us are the products of two general and broad factors: Hereditary factors are based on the genetic make up of the individual influences growth and development throughout life. The offspring inherits genetic characteristics from his parents.
The environmental factors cc of the influence of parents, family, friends, schooling, society, culture, and all other experiences to which the child is exposed right from the moment of conception.
The nature-nurture controversy has philosophical roots. In the s, Locke, English philosopher, argued that the mind of a newborn is a blank: Locke believed that environment acts as the sole determinant of development. On the con the French philosopher, J. The nature-nurture question has been vehemently debated for decades.
At present, psychologists agree that both nature and nurture interact to pro specific developmental patterns and competence.
The question has changed from which heredity or environment influences behavior to how and to what extent heredity and environment shape the developmental proc No body is born without a genetic make up, or no one grows up free environmental influences.
Both heredity and environment are important, it is unwise to determine their relative influence. Even then, the de concerning their relative influence remains still active with different thee emphasizing either the role of heredity or the role of environment Scarr, These factors are discussed below in detail.
Hereditary Factors Heredity refers to genetically transmitted characteristics from generation to the next. We inherit genetic code from parents. Because of genetic code, a fertilized human egg never grows into a dog or a mouse or any other animal.
The genotype expresses itself in observable appearance and behavior, which is called phenotype. The phenotype includes height, weight, eye color, and psychological characteristics such as intelligence, personality and creativity.
The genetic code provides the base on which phenotype grows and manifests. How can we know that human intelligence has a genetic basis?
To do so, we have to infer the underlying genotypes from the observable phenotypic behavior. A strategy to understand genotypes from phenotypes is to examine the similarities between the intelligence level of children, and their parents and relatives.
Francis Galton was of the view that intelligence is largely inherited, and it runs in families. Correlations between IQs of brothers, sisters, children and their parents, and their distant relatives indicate that intelligence has a strong hereditary component Kagan and havemann, The correlation between the IQs of one child and another person selected at random would tend to be zero, while among the related individuals the correlations would be relatively high.
Correlation coefficient provides a measure of the strength of relationship between two variables, and; bound by limits from The higher is the correlation coefficient; le higher is the strength of relationship.
He examined several studies on intelligence, many of which involved comparisons of identical and fraternal twins. Jensen found support in these studies for his argument in favor of the genetic influence on intelligence.
He claimed that clear-cut genetic differences are present in the average intelligence of races, nationalities, and social classes. He stated that blacks have lower genetic intelligence than whites, and that is why they do not perform as well as whites on intelligence tests.Chapter 7 Review Questions.
STUDY. PLAY. Which of the following psychologists developed and promoted the use of the intelligence quotient or IQ as a measure for intelligence?
Lewis Terman Which of the following is the research method most commonly used to explore the role of genetic and environmental factors in human intelligence?
Environment and intelligence research investigates the impact of environment on intelligence. This is one of the most important factors in understanding human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability.
Human Behaviour and Social Environment ROLE OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT IN SHAPING HUMAN BEHAVIOUR by: rohit singh socw m.a. previous,dssw Abstract Both, Heredity and environment are equally important in the development of the personality of . Emotional intelligence (EI) is one such personal characteristic, and is increasingly referred to as having a potential role in medicine, nursing and other health care professions.
While the effect of environment can not reasonably be dismissed as a factor on intelligence, a much more stringent argument has been and continues to be waged.
This argument centers on the effect of genetics and heritability on the development of intelligence in humans. At its roots, “The Bell Curve” proposes that as American society grows, wealth and other social benefits are being distributed more prevalently on the basis of people’s intelligence than on the social background.