The understanding of the concept of a black hole

Description[ edit ] Supermassive black holes have properties that distinguish them from lower-mass classifications.

The understanding of the concept of a black hole

Goodbye Big Bang, hello black hole?

The understanding of the concept of a black hole

A group of theoretical physicists suppose the birth of the universe could have happened after a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole and ejected debris. Before getting into their findings, let's just preface this by saying nobody knows anything for sure.

Humans obviously weren't around at the time the universe began. The standard theory is that the universe grew from an infinitely dense point or singularitybut who knows what was there before? So what are the limitations of the Big Bang theory? The singularity is one of them.

Also, it's hard to predict why it would have produced a universe that has an almost uniform temperaturebecause the age of our universe about Most cosmologists say the universe must have been expanding faster than the speed of light for this to happen, but Ashford says even that theory has problems: The model they constructed has the three-dimensional universe floating as a membrane or brane in a "bulk universe" that has four dimensions.

Yes, this is making our heads hurt as well, so it might be easier to temporarily think of the brane as two-dimensional and the "bulk universe" as three-dimensional when trying to picture it. You can read the more technical details in this paper on which the new theory is based.

So if this "bulk universe" has four-dimensional stars, these stars could go through the same life cycles as the three-dimensional ones we are familiar with. The most massive ones would explode as supernovae, shed their skin and have the innermost parts collapse as a black hole.

The 4-D black hole would have an "event horizon" just like the 3-D ones we are familiar with. The event horizon is the boundary between the inside and the outside of a black hole. There are a lot of theories of what goes on inside a black hole, although nothing has ever been observed.

In a 3-D universe, the event horizon appears as a two-dimensional surface. So in a 4-D universe, the event horizon would be a 3-D object called a hypersphere.

So basically, what the model says is when the 4-D star blows apart, the leftover material would create a 3-D brane surrounding a 3-D event horizonand then expand. The long and the short of it? To bring this back to things that we can see, it is clear from observations that the universe is expanding and indeed is getting faster as it expands, possibly due to the mysterious dark energy.

The new theory says that the expansion comes from this 3-D brane's growth. While the model does explain why the universe has nearly uniform temperature the 4-D universe preceding it would have existed it for much longera European Space Agency telescope called Planck recently mapped small temperature variations in the cosmic microwave background, which is believed to be leftovers of the universe's beginnings.

Kornmesser The new model differs from these CMB readings by about four percent, so the researchers are looking to refine the model. They still feel the model has worth, however.

You can read more about their research on this prepublished Arxiv paper. The Arxiv entry does not specify if the paper has been submitted to any peer-reviewed scientific journals for publication.This is the living breathing core of all rocket design.

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would admit people from "shole" countries like African countries and Haiti instead of places like Norway. Minimum mass of a black hole.

In principle, a black hole can have any mass equal to or above the Planck mass (about × 10 −8 kg or 22 micrograms). To make a black hole, one must concentrate mass or energy sufficiently that the escape velocity from the region in which it is concentrated exceeds the speed of condition gives the Schwarzschild radius, R = 2GM / c 2, where G is the.

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.

Abstract: Black holes are fundamental to our understanding of modern astrophysics, yet the origin of this concept can be traced back to the writings of England’s John Michell and France’s Pierre-Simon Laplace in and Stuart Hameroff is an impish figure — short, round, with gray hair and a broad, gnomic face.

His voice is smoke — deep and granular, rumbling with the weight of his 70 years.

Micro black hole - Wikipedia