Ethics[ edit ] Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative:
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece was the birthplace of Western philosophical ethics. The ideas of Socrates c. The sudden flowering of philosophy during that period was rooted in the ethical thought of earlier centuries.
In the poetic literature of the 7th and 6th centuries bce, there were, as in other culturesmoral precepts but no real attempts to formulate a coherent overall ethical position. The Greeks were later to refer to the most prominent of these poets and early philosophers as the seven sagesand they are frequently quoted with respect by Plato and Aristotle.
Knowledge of the thought of this period is limited, for often only fragments of original writings, along with later accounts of dubious accuracy, remain. He appears to have written nothing at all, but he was the founder of a school of thought that touched on all aspects of life and that may have been a kind of philosophical and religious order.
In ancient times the school was best known for its advocacy of vegetarianismwhich, like that of the Jains, was associated with the belief that after the death of the body, the human soul may take up residence in the body of an animal see reincarnation.
Pythagoreans continued to espouse this view for many centuries, and classical passages in the works of writers such as Ovid 43 bce—17 ce and Porphyry — opposing bloodshed and animal slaughter can be traced to Pythagoras.
This term was used in the 5th century to refer to a class of professional teachers of rhetoric and argument. The Sophists promised their pupils success in political debate and increased influence in the affairs of the city.
They were accused of being mercenaries who taught their students to win arguments by fair means or foul. Aristotle said that Protagoras c.
They regarded themselves as imparters of the cultural and intellectual qualities necessary for success, and their involvement with argument about practical affairs naturally led them to develop views about ethics.
The recurrent theme in the views of the better-known Sophists, such as Protagoras, Antiphon c. He argued that, while the particular content of the moral rules may vary, there must be rules of some kind if life is to be tolerable.
Thus, Protagoras stated that the foundations of an ethical system needed nothing from the gods or from any special metaphysical realm beyond the ordinary world of the senses. He explained that the concept of justice means nothing more than obedience to the laws of society, and, since these laws are made by the strongest political group in its own interest, justice represents nothing but the interest of the stronger.
The first definition of ethic in the American Heritage Dictionary is "a principle of right or good conduct, or a body of such principles" (, ).. Ethics is "a systematic process of reflection in which issues of what one morally ought to do are analyzed, decided, and evaluated through moral reasoning that encompasses, but is not limited to, ethical principles and theories" (Silva, , 4). View Virtue Ethics (VE) and Adultery from PHIL at University of British Columbia. o Needs to consider distant effects that seem irrelevant • Rule utilitarianism thinks we should follow rules. Another interpretation of The Categorical Imperative. Normally she wouldn’t get involved with adultery at all, after all, she wouldn’t like it if someone cheated on her, so she could not universalise adultery. Many people view Kant’s philosophy as cold and emotionless because he says we should be motivated by good will and duty.
Presumably he would then encourage his pupils to follow their own interests as best they could. It is not surprising that, with ideas of this sort in circulation, other thinkers should react by probing more deeply into ethics to see whether the potentially destructive conclusions of some of the Sophists could be resisted.
This reaction produced works that have served ever since as the cornerstone of the entire edifice of Western ethics. Yet, unlike other figures of comparable importance, such as the Buddha or Confucius, he did not tell his audience how they should live.
What Socrates taught was a method of inquiry.
When the Sophists or their pupils boasted that they knew what justice, piety, temperance, or law was, Socrates would ask them to give an account, which he would then show was entirely inadequate.
For those who thought that adherence to the conventional moral code was more important than the cultivation of an inquiring mind, the charge was appropriate.Another interpretation of The Categorical Imperative. Normally she wouldn’t get involved with adultery at all, after all, she wouldn’t like it if someone cheated on her, so she could not universalise adultery.
Many people view Kant’s philosophy as cold and emotionless because he says we should be motivated by good will and duty. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
The Dark Enlightenment – Part 1 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 2 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 3 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4 The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4a The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4b The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4c The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4d The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4e The Dark Enlightenment – Part 4f(inal) Part 1: Neo-reactionaries head for the exit.
how adultery is view from a utilitarian's point of view. According to one form of act-utilitarianism (call it AU1 and call act-utilitarianism in general AU), an act is morally right, if and only if its agent can justifiably believe (from an intellectual point of view) it to maximize expected utility (or well-being or welfare).
Heroic men, heroic women, and animals. See also the section The courage of the bullfighters, which includes material on the courage of the rock climbers and mountaineers, including the remarkable achievements of the free climber Alex Honnold.. This is a very varied section, like some other sections of the page.
So much writing in support of bullfighting is suffocating in its exclusion of the.